Expectation Maximization Clustering (RapidMiner Studio Core)

Synopsis

This operator performs clustering using the Expectation Maximization algorithm. Clustering is concerned with grouping objects together that are similar to each other and dissimilar to the objects belonging to other clusters. But the Expectation Maximization algorithm extends this basic approach to clustering in some important ways.

Description

The general purpose of clustering is to detect clusters in examples and to assign those examples to the clusters. A typical application for this type of analysis is a marketing research study in which a number of consumer behavior related variables are measured for a large sample of respondents. The purpose of the study is to detect 'market segments', i.e., groups of respondents that are somehow more similar to each other (to all other members of the same cluster) when compared to respondents that belong to other clusters. In addition to identifying such clusters, it is usually equally of interest to determine how the clusters are different, i.e., determine the specific variables or dimensions that vary and how they vary in regard to members in different clusters.

The EM (expectation maximization) technique is similar to the K-Means technique. The basic operation of K-Means clustering algorithms is relatively simple: Given a fixed number of k clusters, assign observations to those clusters so that the means across clusters (for all variables) are as different from each other as possible. The EM algorithm extends this basic approach to clustering in two important ways:

  • Instead of assigning examples to clusters to maximize the differences in means for continuous variables, the EM clustering algorithm computes probabilities of cluster memberships based on one or more probability distributions. The goal of the clustering algorithm then is to maximize the overall probability or likelihood of the data, given the (final) clusters.

Expectation Maximization algorithmThe basic approach and logic of this clustering method is as follows. Suppose you measure a single continuous variable in a large sample of observations. Further, suppose that the sample consists of two clusters of observations with different means (and perhaps different standard deviations); within each sample, the distribution of values for the continuous variable follows the normal distribution. The goal of EM clustering is to estimate the means and standard deviations for each cluster so as to maximize the likelihood of the observed data (distribution). Put another way, the EM algorithm attempts to approximate the observed distributions of values based on mixtures of different distributions in different clusters. The results of EM clustering are different from those computed by k-means clustering. The latter will assign observations to clusters to maximize the distances between clusters. The EM algorithm does not compute actual assignments of observations to clusters, but classification probabilities. In other words, each observation belongs to each cluster with a certain probability. Of course, as a final result you can usually review an actual assignment of observations to clusters, based on the (largest) classification probability.

Differentiation